Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative coccobacillus and well known for affecting a wide range of mammals, including human . P. multocida infections can cause serious diseases, such as fowl cholera, swine atrophic rhinitis, bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia and lower respiratory tract (LRT) infections (pneumonia and pleuritis), rabbit snuffles, human wound abscesses and meningitis followed by cat- or dog-inflicted injuries . P. multocida infections also lead to big economic losses to animal husbandry worldwide. The general acceptable classification of P. multocida relies on different serotypes. Five serovar, A, B, D, E and F, have been classified based on different capsular antigens [3,4]. There are also sixteen somatic types based on the lipopolysaccharide antigens variation .
P. multocida has the typical characteristics of an opportunistic pathogen that is affected by various host- and pathogen specific determinants. Different forms exhibit significant differences in host pathogenicity, biochemical characteristics, culture characteristic and antigenicity, which may relevant to its various virulence of different serotypes . Strains of serotype A, D and F produce capsules composed of hyaluronic acid, heparin and chondroitin, respectively . Diseases caused by P. multocida generally depend on capsular type as serotype B and E cause hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle and buffalo , serotype A and F cause pneumonia in cattle [9,10], and serotype D causes atrophic rhinitis in pigs .
The first complete genome sequence of P. multocida was Pm70, isolated from avian species in 2001. Since then, the complete or nearly complete genomes of over 125 P. multocida have been sequenced, including at least ten complete genomes from the species in the NCBI database on October 4, 2017. All of the currently available P. multocida genomes are between 1.438 and 2.699 Mbp in length and comprise a single circular genome with a G+C content of between 36.9 - 44%. The available data were used to identify a number of important similarities and differences between these strains and determine their virulence . The Genomic analyses provide an important foundation and reference for future research on the mechanisms of pathogenesis, host specificity and virulence for this pathogen.
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