qPrimerDB - qPCR Primer Database

A resource for real-time quantitative PCR primers

Version: 1.2

Birds_and_Reptiles

Anas platyrhynchos
Gallus gallus
Meleagris gallopavo
Pelodiscus sinensis
Taeniopygia guttata

Fish

Astyanax mexicanus
Danio rerio
Gadus morhua
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Latimeria chalumnae
Lepisosteus oculatus
Oreochromis niloticus
Oryzias latipes
Petromyzon marinus
Poecilia formosa
Takifugu rubripes
Xiphophorus maculatus

Insecta

Acromyrmex echinatior
Aedes aegypti
Anopheles coluzzii
Anopheles stephensi
Apis dorsata
Apis florea
Apis mellifera
Athalia rosae
Bactrocera cucurbitae
Bactrocera dorsalis
Bombus terrestris
Bombyx mori
Camponotus floridanus
Cerapachys biroi
Ceratitis capitata
Chilo suppressalis
Danaus plexippus
Diaphorina citri
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila yakuba
Fopius arisanus
Harpegnathos saltator
Heliconius melpomene
Linepithema humile
Macrocentrus cingulum
Megachile rotundata
Megaselia scalaris
Melitaea cinxia
Microplitis demolitor
Musca domestica
Nasonia vitripennis
Nilaparvata lugens
Pediculus humanus
Plutella xylostella
Pogonomyrmex barbatus
Rhodnius prolixus
Solenopsis invicta
Tribolium castaneum
Vollenhovia emeryi
Wasmannia auropunctata
Zootermopsis nevadensis

Mammalia

Ailuropoda melanoleuca
Bos taurus
Callithrix jacchus
Canis familiaris
Cavia porcellus
Chlorocebus sabaeus
Choloepus hoffmanni
Dasypus novemcinctus
Dipodomys ordii
Echinops telfairi
Equus caballus
Erinaceus europaeus
Felis catus
Gorilla gorilla
Homo sapiens
Ictidomys tridecemlineatus
Loxodonta africana
Macaca mulatta
Macropus eugenii
Microcebus murinus
Monodelphis domestica
Mus musculus
Myotis lucifugus
Nomascus leucogenys
Ornithorhynchus anatinus
Oryctolagus cuniculus
Otolemur garnettii
Ovis aries
Pan troglodytes
Papio anubis
Pongo abelii
Procavia capensis
Pteropus vampyrus
Rattus norvegicus
Sarcophilus harrisii
Sus scrofa
Tarsius syrichta
Tupaia belangeri
Tursiops truncatus
Vicugna pacos

Other_animals

Anolis carolinensis
Caenorhabditis briggsae
Caenorhabditis elegans
Ciona intestinalis
Ciona savignyi
Ixodes scapularis
Lottia gigantea
Mnemiopsis leidyi
Octopus bimaculoides
Sarcoptes scabiei
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Strongyloides ratti
Tetranychus urticae
Xenopus tropicalis

Fungi

Absidia glauca
Acidomyces richmondensis
Acidomyces richmondensis bfw
Acremonium chrysogenum atcc 11550
Agaricus bisporus var burnettii jb137 s8
Allomyces macrogynus atcc 38327
Alternaria alternata
Amanita muscaria koide bx008
Amphiamblys sp wsbs2006
Arthrobotrys oligospora atcc 24927
Arthroderma otae cbs 113480
Aschersonia aleyrodis rcef 2490
Ascochyta rabiei
Ascoidea rubescens dsm 1968
Ascosphaera apis arsef 7405
Ashbya gossypii
Aspergillus aculeatus atcc 16872
Aspergillus bombycis
Aspergillus brasiliensis cbs 101740
Aspergillus calidoustus
Aspergillus carbonarius item 5010
Aspergillus clavatus
Aspergillus cristatus
Aspergillus flavus
Aspergillus flavus af70
Aspergillus fumigatus
Aspergillus fumigatus var rp 2014
Aspergillus fumigatus z5
Aspergillus fumigatusa1163
Aspergillus glaucus cbs 516 65
Aspergillus lentulus
Aspergillus luchuensis
Aspergillus luchuensis cbs 106 47
Aspergillus nidulans
Aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4
Aspergillus niger
Aspergillus niger atcc 1015
Aspergillus niger gca 001515345
Aspergillus nomius nrrl 13137
Aspergillus ochraceoroseus
Aspergillus oryzae
Aspergillus oryzae 3 042
Aspergillus oryzae gca 002007945
Aspergillus parasiticus su 1
Aspergillus rambellii
Aspergillus ruber cbs 135680
Aspergillus sydowii cbs 593 65
Aspergillus terreus
Aspergillus udagawae
Aspergillus ustus
Aspergillus versicolor cbs 583 65
Aureobasidium melanogenum cbs 110374
Aureobasidium namibiae cbs 147 97
Aureobasidium pullulans exf 150
Aureobasidium subglaciale exf 2481
Baudoinia panamericana uamh 10762
Beauveria bassiana
Beauveria bassiana arsef 2860
Beauveria bassiana d1 5
Bipolaris maydis atcc 48331
Bipolaris maydis c5
Bipolaris oryzae atcc 44560
Bipolaris sorokiniana nd90pr
Bipolaris victoriae fi3
Bipolaris zeicola 26 r 13
Blastomyces dermatitidis atcc 18188
Blastomyces dermatitidis er 3
Blastomyces gilchristii slh14081
Blumeria graminis
Blumeria graminis f sp tritici 96224
Botrytis cinerea
Botrytis cinerea bcdw1
Botrytis cinerea t4
Brettanomyces bruxellensis awri1499
Byssochlamys spectabilis no 5
Candida albicans 12c
Candida albicans gc75
Candida albicans p34048
Candida albicans p37005
Candida albicans sc5314
Candida albicans sc5314 gca 000784655
Candida albicans wo 1
Candida dubliniensis cd36
Candida glabrata
Candida maltosa xu316
Candida orthopsilosis co 90 125
Candida tenuis atcc 10573
Candida tropicalis mya 3404
Capronia coronata cbs 617 96
Capronia epimyces cbs 606 96
Ceratocystis platani
Chaetomium globosum cbs 148 51
Chaetomium thermophilum var thermophilum dsm 1495
Cladophialophora bantiana cbs 173 52
Cladophialophora carrionii cbs 160 54
Cladophialophora immunda
Cladophialophora psammophila cbs 110553
Cladophialophora yegresii cbs 114405
Claviceps purpurea 20 1
Clavispora lusitaniae atcc 42720
Coccidioides immitis rmscc 2394
Coccidioides immitis rs
Coccidioides posadasii c735 delta sowgp
Coccidioides posadasii rmscc 3488
Coccidioides posadasii str silveira
Colletotrichum fioriniae pj7
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides cg 14
Colletotrichum graminicola
Colletotrichum higginsianum
Colletotrichum orbiculare
Colletotrichum sublineola
Cordyceps militaris cm01
Cryptococcus neoformans
Cyphellophora europaea cbs 101466
Dactylellina haptotyla cbs 200 50
Debaryomyces hansenii cbs767
Diaporthe ampelina
Drechslerella stenobrocha 248
Emmonsia parva uamh 139
Endocarpon pusillum z07020
Eremothecium cymbalariae dbvpg 7215
Eremothecium gossypii fdag1
Erysiphe necator
Exophiala aquamarina cbs 119918
Exophiala dermatitidis nih ut8656
Exophiala mesophila
Exophiala oligosperma
Exophiala sideris
Exophiala spinifera
Exophiala xenobiotica
Fonsecaea pedrosoi cbs 271 37
Fusarium oxysporum f sp conglutinans race 2 54008
Fusarium oxysporum f sp cubense race 1
Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici mn25
Fusarium oxysporum f sp melonis 26406
Fusarium oxysporum f sp pisi hdv247
Fusarium oxysporum f sp radicis lycopersici 26381
Fusarium oxysporum fo47
Fusarium oxysporum fosc 3 a
Glarea lozoyensis 74030
Kazachstania africana cbs 2517
Kazachstania naganishii cbs 8797
Kluyveromyces lactis
Komagataella phaffii cbs 7435
Kuraishia capsulata cbs 1993
Lachancea lanzarotensis
Lachancea thermotolerans cbs 6340
Lodderomyces elongisporus nrrl yb 4239
Macrophomina phaseolina ms6
Magnaporthe oryzae
Marssonina brunnea f sp multigermtubi mb m1
Metarhizium acridum cqma 102
Metarhizium album arsef 1941
Metarhizium anisopliae
Metarhizium anisopliae arsef 23
Metarhizium anisopliae arsef 549
Metarhizium anisopliae brip 53284
Metarhizium brunneum arsef 3297
Metarhizium guizhouense arsef 977
Metarhizium robertsii
Meyerozyma guilliermondii atcc 6260
Millerozyma farinosa cbs 7064
Oidiodendron maius zn
Penicillium brasilianum
Penicillium camemberti fm 013
Phialophora americana
Pseudogymnoascus sp vkm f 103
Rasamsonia emersonii cbs 393 64
Rhinocladiella mackenziei cbs 650 93
Saccharomyces arboricola h 6
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Saccharomyces cerevisiae awri796
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cen pk113 7d
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ec1118
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fostersb
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fosterso
Saccharomyces cerevisiae kyokai no 7
Saccharomyces cerevisiae lalvin qa23
Saccharomyces cerevisiae p283
Saccharomyces cerevisiae r008
Saccharomyces cerevisiae rm11 1a
Saccharomyces cerevisiae vin13
Saccharomyces cerevisiae x saccharomyces kudriavzevii vin7
Saccharomyces cerevisiae yjm189
Saccharomyces cerevisiae yjm789
Saccharomyces kudriavzevii ifo 1802
Saccharomycetaceae sp ashbya aceri
Saitoella complicata nrrl y 17804
Scedosporium apiospermum
Scheffersomyces stipitis cbs 6054
Schizosaccharomyces pombe
Schizosaccharomyces pombe 972h
Schizosaccharomyces pombe EBC7
Sclerotinia borealis f 4128
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Setosphaeria turcica et28a
Sordaria macrospora
Spathaspora passalidarum nrrl y 27907
Sphaerulina musiva so2202
Sporothrix brasiliensis 5110
Sporothrix schenckii 1099 18
Sporothrix schenckii atcc 58251
Stachybotrys chartarum ibt 7711
Stachybotrys chlorohalonata ibt 40285
Talaromyces cellulolyticus
Talaromyces islandicus
Talaromyces marneffei atcc 18224
Talaromyces marneffei pm1
Talaromyces stipitatus atcc 10500
Tetrapisispora blattae cbs 6284
Tetrapisispora phaffii cbs 4417
Thermothelomyces thermophila atcc 42464
Thielavia terrestris nrrl 8126
Thielaviopsis punctulata
Torrubiella hemipterigena
Torulaspora delbrueckii
Trichoderma atroviride imi 206040
Trichoderma harzianum
Trichoderma reesei rut c 30
Trichophyton benhamiae cbs 112371
Trichophyton equinum cbs 127 97
Trichophyton interdigitale h6
Trichophyton rubrum cbs 202 88
Trichophyton rubrum d6
Trichophyton rubrum mr850
Trichophyton soudanense cbs 452 61
Trichophyton tonsurans cbs 112818
Trichophyton verrucosum hki 0517
Uncinocarpus reesii 1704
Ustilaginoidea virens
Vanderwaltozyma polyspora dsm 70294
Verruconis gallopava
Verticillium alfalfae vams 102
Wickerhamomyces ciferrii
Yarrowia lipolytica
Zygosaccharomyces bailii isa1307
Zygosaccharomyces rouxii
Zymoseptoria brevis
Zymoseptoria tritici

Microsporidia

Encephalitozoon cuniculi EC1
Encephalitozoon cuniculi EC2
Encephalitozoon cuniculi EC3
Enterocytozoon bieneusi H348
Nematocida parisii ERTm1
Nosema bombycis CQ1
Nosema ceranae BRL01
Spraguea lophii 42-110
Vittaforma corneae ATCC50505

Dicotyledons

Betula pendula

Eudicotyledons

Aethionema arabicum
Amaranthus hypochondriacus
Anacardium occidentale
Aquilegia coerulea
Arabidopsis halleri
Arabidopsis lyrata
Arabidopsis thaliana
Arachis duranensis
Arachis ipaensis
Barbarea vulgaris
Beta vulgaris
Boechera stricta
Brassica juncea
Brassica napus
Brassica nigra
Brassica oleracea capitata
Brassica oleracea italica
Brassica rapa
Calotropis gigantea
Camelina sativa
Camellia sinensis
Capsella grandiflora
Capsella rubella
Capsicum annuum Zunla
Capsicum annuum var glabriusculum
Cardamine hirsuta
Carica papaya
Castanea mollissima
Chenopodium quinoa
Cicer arietinum
Cicer reticulatum
Citrus clementina
Citrus sinensis
Coffea canephora
Cucumis melo
Cucumis sativus
Cucurbita moschata
Daucus carota
Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Eucalyptus grandis
Eutrema salsugineum
Fragaria nipponica
Fragaria nubicola
Fragaria orientalis
Fragaria vesca
Fragaria x ananassa
Glycine max
Gossypium arboreum BGI
Gossypium barbadense NAU
Gossypium hirsutum
Gossypium hirsutum BGI
Gossypium raimondii
Gossypium raimondii BGI
Helianthus annuus
Hevea brasiliensis
Hibiscus syriacus
Ipomoea batatas
Ipomoea trifida
Jatropha curcas
Kalanchoe fedtschenkoi
Kalanchoe laxiflora
Lactuca sativa
Levenworthia alabamica
Linum usitatissimum
Lotus japonicus
Malus domestica
Manihot esculenta
Medicago truncatula
Mimulus guttatus
Nicotiana benthamiana
Nicotiana sylvestris
Nicotiana tabacum
Nicotiana tomentosiformis
Olea europaea
Petunia axillaris
Petunia inflata
Phaseolus vulgaris
Populus deltoides
Populus tremula
Populus tremuloides
Populus trichocarpa
Prunus persica
Raphanus sativus
Ricinus communis
Rosa multiflora
Rubus occidentalis
Salix purpurea
Sesamum indicum
Sida fallax
Solanum lycopersicum
Solanum pennellii
Solanum tuberosum
Thellungiella parvula
Theobroma cacao
Trifolium pratense
Vigna angularis
Vigna radiata
Vigna unguiculata
Vitis vinifera

Monocotyledons

Aegilops tauschii
Ananas comosus
Asparagus officinalis
Brachypodium distachyon
Brachypodium hybridum
Brachypodium stacei
Elaeis guineensis
Hordeum vulgare
Leersia perrieri
Musa Itinerans
Musa acuminata
Oropetium thomaeum
Oryza barthii
Oryza brachyantha
Oryza glaberrima
Oryza glumaepatula
Oryza longistaminata
Oryza meridionalis
Oryza punctata
Oryza rufipogon
Oryza sativa indica
Oryza sativa japonica
Panicum hallii
Setaria italica
Setaria viridis
Sorghum bicolor
Spirodela polyrhiza
Triticum aestivum
Triticum urartu
Zea mays
Zostera marina
Zostera muelleri
Zoysia japonica
Zoysia matrella

Other_plants

Amborella trichopoda
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Cyanidioschyzon merolae
Dunaliella salina
Marchantia polymorpha
Micromonas
Micromonas pusilla
Ostreococcus lucimarinus
Physcomitrella patens
Pinus taeda
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Selaginella moellendorffii
Volvox carteri

FAQs

1. Introduction

  •  1.1 Why did we build qPrimerDB?

          Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a powerful and effective research tool that has been widely used for quantitative detection of gene expression and for identifying differentially expressed genes under various experimental treatments. This time-saving and cost-effective method is frequently used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, genetically modified organism (GMO) and pathogen detection, and human in-vitro diagnostics. However, the accuracy and repeatability of qPCR detection are often restrained by primer design and experimental operation factors, leading to considerable variation in detection and incorrect conclusions. It is also noteworthy that the transcription level varies greatly between different gene regions in several eukaryotes investigated (e.g., human, mice, and chicken). To improve the comparability of qPCR detection results obtained by different research groups, only one optimal gene-specific qPCR primer pair should be used to amplify each gene. To ensure the accuracy and comparability of qPCR detection results between different genes, we have developed an automatic gene-specific qPCR primer design and validation workflow based on ePCR and the thermodynamics-based primer specificity checking program MFEprimer-2.0. Until now, we have analyzed 147 genomes and designed 51,091,785 gene-specific qPCR primer pairs, which will be an invaluable resource for qPCR assays.

  • 1.2 What is qPrimerDB?

          The qPrimerDB (real-time quantitative PCR Primer Database, https://biodb.swu.edu.cn/qprimerdb) is currently the most comprehensive primer database with a web front end providing gene-specific and pre-computed qPCR primer pairs across 147 important genomes (including human, mice, zebrafish, yeast, thale cress, rice, maize, etc). The qPrimerDB provides an interactive and information-rich web graphical interface to display search and BLAST results as table-based descriptions and associated links. In this database, 3,331,426 best and unique gene-specific qPCR primer pairs were designed for each gene in the 147 genomes sequenced. qPrimerDB also enables batch download of best gene-specific qPCR primer pairs and 51,091,785 possible gene-specific qPCR primer pairs. qPrimerDB thus constitutes a valuable resource for gene expression analysis and will save precious time for researchers.

          qPrimerDB is regularly updated. Every update will be reported on the Home page. Visit our site to check if new data or design plans are available.

  • 1.3 How do I cite qPrimerDB?

          We hope our database is a useful source of information for researchers, educators, and the interested public. When using these data, please credit qPrimerDB as your source. The current recommended citation format is as follows:

          Kun Lu, Tian Li, Jian He, Wei Chang, Rui Zhang, Miao Liu, Mengna Yu, Yonghai Fan, Jinqi Ma, Cunmin Qu, Liezhao Liu, Nannan Li, Ying Liang, Rui Wang, Wei Qian, Zhanglin Tang, Xinfu Xu, Bo Lei, Kai Zhang, Jiana Li. (2017) qPrimerDB: A thermodynamics-based gene-specific qPCR primer database for 147 organisms. Nucleic Acids Res. (accepted).

          Permission is not required to use the data for non-profit purposes, although we hope that you will cite qPrimerDB, as described above. If you plan to use the data in qPrimerDB for any for-profit application, please contact us for permission.

2. Database Usage

  • 2.1 What is the data source of qPrimerDB?

          So far, qPrimerDB has collected whole genome sequences of 147 important organisms (80 animals, 66 plants, and one fungus), and the corresponding coding/mRNA sequences (Supplementary Table 1). Out of the 147 organisms, genome data of Arabidopsis thaliana was downloaded from The Arabidopsis Information Resource (http://www.arabidopsis.org/), 33 plant genomes were downloaded from Phytozome 12.0 (http://www.phytozome.net), 4 legume genomes were obtained from the Legume Information System (LIS, https://legumeinfo.org), 2 plant genomes were acquired from PLAZA 3.0 (http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/plaza), and the remaining 107 genomes were retrieved from Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/).

 

  • 2.2 Why was MFEprimer-2.0 chosen for evaluating the specificity of qPCR primer?

          MFEprimer-2.0 (http://biocompute.bmi.ac.cn/CZlab/MFEprimer-2.0)  is a fast thermodynamics-based program for checking the specificity of PCR primers against the background DNA. Unlike traditional sequence alignment-based programs, MFEprimer-2.0 mimics the thermodynamics hybrid process of the primers and the target amplicons and speeds up the binding site searching process using the k-mer algorithm. For more detailed information about MFEprimer-2.0, please read the manual (https://github.com/quwubin/MFEprimer/wiki/Manual) and protocol (http://quwubin.cn/download/QuWB_2015_MFEprimer_Protocol.pdf).

  • 2.3 What is standard to determine the specificity and level?

          In this database, all the primers were classified into three levels. The standard for selecting the highest confidence (level 1) gene-specific qPCR primers was primer pair coverage (PPC) = 10. The high confidence (level 2) and low confidence (level 3) gene-specific qPCR primers were selected if the stability of 3′-end of a primer duplex Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is equal or smaller than −9 kcal/mol and −11 kcal/mol, respectively, according to Qu's (Nucleic Acids Res. 40, W205-208, 2012) and Rychlik’s (Biotechniques 18, 84–86, 88–90, 2015) reports.

          The PPC of the primer pair is calculated with the following formula:  

          PPC = Fm × Rm ×(1 - Cvfr)/(Fl × Rl

          where Fm and Rm are sequence overlaps of the forward primer and reverse primer with the template, and Fl and Rl are the lengths of the forward primer and reverse primer, respectively. CVfr is the coefficient of variability of matched length of forward primer and reverse primer. If a pair of primers binds the template completely, the PPC will be 100%. Hence, the primer pairs will be removed from level 1 primer set, if they bind to unintended genes and result in nonspecific amplicons using the PPC cutoff of 10. The remaining primer pairs will be excluded from level 2 and level 3 primer sets if the ΔG of either primer is equal to or smaller than −9 kcal/mol and −11 kcal/mol when binding to mistargeted regions. 

  • 2.4 Why are the primers divided into the best and all primers?

          GC content is very variable in different genomic regions in many eukaryotes. Recent studies revealed a relatively high correlation between GC content and gene expression in human, mice, and chicken (Arhondakis et al., 2008, 2011; Rao et al., 2013). Hence, it is hard to compare the gene expression detection results using the primer pairs designed from different regions in the same gene..

          To avoid the inconsistence in the qPCR detection using different primers,  a series of primer pairs at different regions were generated for each gene, and only the best one was included in the best primer set and recommended to users. If a non-specific amplification occurs for a recommended primer pair, researchers can download all primer pairs for target genes, and choose another one for a qPCR assay. We provide the best primer set and all primers for each genome as separate compressed files on the ’Download’, ‘Dataset‘ page.

  • 2.5 How do I browse for information in qPrimerDB?

          Please read the manual and follow the example to browse through organisms and identify primer pairs of interest

  • 2.6 How do I search for information in qPrimerDB?

          Please read the manual and follow the example of how to search for information of interest by selecting organisms, primer ID, gene ID, or keywords. The bulk search operation is also allowed for users. 

  • 2.7 How do I download datasets in qPrimerDB?

          The best primer set, all primers, and cDNA or coding sequences for each genome can be downloaded from the ’Download’, ‘Dataset‘ page by choosing an organism and file type (i.e., the best primer, all primers, or sequence).

  • 2.8 What is the meaning of each section in the download datasets?

          Both the best primer and all primer files contain 15 columns.

         faq1

          primerID: primer pair ID; GeneID: gene ID; pLevel: level of primer pair; FpID: forward primer ID; RpID: reverse primer ID; Fprimer: forward primer sequence; Rprimer: reverse primer sequence; PPC: primer pair coverage; AmpSize: amplicon size; AmpGC: amplicon GC content; FpTm: melting temperature of forward primer; RpTm: melting temperature of reverse primer; FpDg: Gibbs free energy between the forward primer and its binding site; RpDg: Gibbs free energy between the reverse primer and its binding site; NumExonCorss: number of exon spanned.

  • 2.9 How do I request the primer design for an organism of interest ?

          Please fill out the design request form and provide information, including organism, download links for unique cDNA or coding sequence, protein sequence and genome sequence, which are needed for the design request. To increase the running efficiency, links for the gff or gtf file and annotation file are also welcome.

  • 2.10 How specific are the primers in qPrimerDB?

          To validate the specificity of amplification and to check for the presence of non-specific amplicons, we performed qPCR assays for 66 randomly selected genes in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), oilseed rape (Brassica napus), rice (Oryza sativa), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), silkworm (Bombyx mori), and zebrafish (Danio rerio). In the qPCR experiments, only the best primer pair for each gene from qPrimerDB was selected. To ensure the reliability of experimental results, the setup and validation of qPCR were performed under conditions prescribed in the MIQE guidelines. Based on melting curve and gel electrophoresis, all the selected primer pairs were shown to be highly specific with a high amplification efficiency.

          qPCR

  • 2.11 Questions not answered in this FAQ ?

          If you have any inquiries that are not addressed in the FAQs, feel free to contact us via email or the ’Contact Us‘ feedback form.

3. Help

  • Comments & Collaborations

          We are very interested in receiving your comments, suggestions for improvement, and guidance. Please contact us via e-mail or use the online feedback form on the 'Contact Us' tab from the ‘Help’ page. We would like to invite the scientific community to submit their qPCR detection results. This information will be very helpful to the community.

          We also encourage the scientific community to submit their qPCR primer development request for your own genome or transcriptome. We will continuously update our database and add more species in the qPrimerDB.